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MDA and Counter-Piracy

Page history last edited by Rafael E. Matos 14 years, 11 months ago




Analytic Support for Maritime Domain Awareness

and Counter-Piracy

Terms of Reference

“The heart of the Maritime Domain Awareness program is accurate information, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance of all vessels, cargo, and people extending well beyond our traditional maritime boundaries,” President Bush, 20 January 2002.


The security environment of today includes a wide range of “targets” that the United States and Canada must track: potential terrorists, pirates, smugglers, paramilitary naval forces, etc, both on the domestic and international fronts. Dealing with this security environment requires an awareness of the maritime domain; often referred to as Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA). Generically, MDA can be defined as:
The effective understanding of anything associated with the maritime domain that could impact the security, safety, economy, or environment of a nation. 
The challenge of achieving MDA is of a particular concern to the US Department of Defense and to the Canadian Department of National Defence. Consequently, there is a real need for the military operational research and analysis (OR&A) community to provide the necessary analytic support to ensure that MDA generation efforts mature in support of our national objectives.
US Actions
No nation, let alone a single agency, has the capability or capacity to achieve MDA unilaterally. MDA requires broad collaboration among many partners, each with a potentially vital contribution to effective understanding of the maritime domain. Since 2002 government agencies within the United States and Canada have promulgated strategies for homeland security from a maritime perspective. 
In December 2002, the US Coast Guard published its “Maritime Strategy for Homeland Security,” which established key objectives and means to achieve them to mitigate the risks associated with threats to our Nation’s maritime security and to prevent terrorist attacks. The primary components of this strategy include awareness of threats and vulnerabilities, prevention and protection against these threats, and response to potential attacks.
National Security Presidential Directive 41 / Homeland Security Presidential Directive 13 (NSPD-41/HSPD-13) (Maritime Security Policy, 21 December 2004) established policy guidelines to enhance national and homeland security by protecting U.S. maritime interests.  This presidential directive underscores the importance of securing the maritime domain, which is defined as: “All areas and things of, on, under, relating to, adjacent to, or bordering on a sea, ocean, or other navigable waterway, including all maritime-related activities, infrastructure, people, cargo, and vessels and other conveyances.”
On 2 April 2004, Admiral Thomas H. Collins, 22nd Commandant of the US Coast Guard, established the Maritime Domain Awareness Steering Committee and the Maritime Domain Awareness Directorate. In a message to the entire Coast Guard Admiral Collins stated, “No capability is more central to our continued success as a military service, law enforcement agency, and member of the intelligence community than achieving effective maritime domain awareness (MDA). The current working definition for MDA is ‘the effective understanding of anything in the marine environment that could adversely affect America’s security, safety, economy, or environment.’ Domain awareness is a 21st Century manifestation of the very essence of our motto, Semper Paratus. No other entity is as uniquely positioned as the United States Coast Guard to ensure MDA success provided we are internally aligned, optimally configured, and our efforts synchronized.”
On 29 May 2007, then Chief of Naval Operations, ADM Mike Mullen, approved for dissemination the Navy Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA) Concept. The Concept presented “a vision for the exchange and use of maritime information in support of maritime security and safety.” According to the National Plan to Achieve Maritime Domain Awareness (October 2005): “Maritime Domain Awareness is the effective understanding of anything associated with the maritime domain that could impact the security, safety, economy, or environment of the United States.”
General Gene Renuart, commander of the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM), addressed an audience of approximately 700 military and civilian space industry representatives 11 April 2007 at the 23rd National Space Symposium. The general commented on the change in the command’s mission in the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks.  He stated that the recently renewed NORAD agreement between the U.S. and Canada, and the addition of Maritime Domain Awareness to NORAD’s mission is a “long haul” relationship that will rely heavily on space-based assets. He also pointed out that the Maritime Domain Awareness mission of NORAD not only crosses lines with NORTHCOM’s mission of homeland defense, but requires improved capabilities in tracking and detection. “NORAD has the detection and warning mission. NORTHCOM is charged with the defense of the homeland in the maritime environment.  Those worlds come together every day in our headquarters.  My vision is one that takes the sea, the land … and the air domain, networks them together, and feeds that into a network supported by space capabilities that allows situational awareness over a much broader area.  It’s that kind of ingenuity, collaboration and networking that we need to create to allow us at NORTHCOM and NORAD to defend the homeland in the best possible fashion.”
Canadian Actions
Canada, with the worlds the longest coastline bordering on three oceans, is investing heavily in improving its ability to deliver relevant domestic maritime surveillance to identify and act on activities which impact upon our national interests. After 9/11, and in light of other challenges to Canadian sovereignty that have occurred in recent years, the types of threats that Canada is focused on are multi-dimensional and include economic, environmental and criminal activity, as well as terrorist attacks and military activity. In addition, Canada has equally important roles in the defence of North American and in contributing to global security which now includes counter-piracy operations as a priority. These roles have been reaffirmed as recently as May 2008 with the publication of the Canada First Defence Strategy. To help fulfill these roles, Canada is upgrading its capabilities to develop and maintain MDA both for North American security as well as for Canadian assets engaged in deployed operations. Investments in MDA include improvements in gathering, analysis, integration, use, dissemination and sharing of decision quality information gained from a combination of maritime, land, air and space surveillance systems as well as the integration of intelligence and information available from major stakeholders in maritime security such as other government departments, allies and the commercial sector as well as a host of other non-governmental agencies and stakeholders.
A key Canadian investment has been the establishment of Maritime Security Operational Centers (MSOCs) on the east and west coasts of Canada as well as the establishment of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway (GL/SLS) MSOC. The government has increased airborne maritime surveillance and is maintaining its investing in earth observation of the marine environment through RADARSAT 2 program and is augmenting its capacity with the follow-on RADARSAT Constellation program.  Substantial new investments in Research, Development and Analysis programs are being made to address the MDA Challenges in the areas of sensor development, data fusion, information management, visualization, threat assessment and information dissemination and Command and Control. As an enabler for the effective MDA, the necessity of reviewing, vetting and updating existing governmental Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) Memorandums of Agreement as well as understanding the legal barriers to information sharing amongst stakeholders has been identified.
In recent years a number of maritime chokepoints have seen rising incidences of piracy (in itself a term not precisely defined or understood in all instances and venues). These incidents of piracy (and other associated illegal activities) have reflected, in part, accentuated disparities of incomes, invasions of territorial and exclusive economic zones, disruptions of viable governmental processes and controls, displacements of economic activities, varying levels of political and organizational corruption, increased levels of criminal activities and collusions, and changes in regional environmental resources and conditions. The palette of contributing factors varies from location to location at any instant, and varies over time in any particular venue. Simultaneously, the volume of maritime vessels passing through the chokepoints has been increasing, thus providing increased levels of opportunities to those engaged in piratical activities.
Recent dissuasive and countering activities have included national, NATO, and Combined Task Force patrols, escorts, and responses, but, nonetheless, such efforts are challenged by the enormity of the surface areas of potential acts, the adaptive tactics of pirates, and the tensions between costs (direct and indirect), impacts (direct and indirect), and benefits. This workshop will primarily address situations in the most active regions—the Gulf of Aden, the Horn of Africa, and the eastern cost of Somalia.
Meeting Objectives:
This special meeting will explore and identify ways in which operational research and analysis (OR&A) supports the activities related to the generation of MDA. Critical to the success of this workshop will be the participation of the operational and policy communities. The meeting will bring together analysts specializing in a variety of OR applications capable of providing insight and direction to the MDA process.
Desired Outcomes:
There are four desired outputs from this workshop:
1.      Identification of the analysis requirements that are required to answer the operational questions regarding MDA. What are the questions that need to be answered by the analysis community?
2.      Identification of current and new analytic tools (models, techniques, etc) that can be used to help answer the operational questions. As an example, measuring the “awareness” in MDA and understanding the key elements of situational awareness as they apply to Fourth Generation Warfare at sea. What types of analysis and what tools/models are required to help the operational community answer the operational questions, and do they currently exist?
3.      Build an analysis community for MDA. Efforts made towards establishing and maintaining and adequate level of MDA require a multi-disciplinary and interagency effort. Currently International organizations, navies, and law enforcement are only a few of the groups struggling to establish a global MDA capability. Just as diverse will be the analytic resources needed to support this effort and there exists the need to build a community of interest (COI) in MDA-related analysis. This multi-disciplinary group will come from a variety of backgrounds with disparate analytic skills that need to be integrated in their support of MDA. What skill sets, agency representation, etc. should be part of an MDA analysis community? What type of forum is suitable to ensure that proposed initiatives do not fail?
4.      This workshop, while admitting the complexity of the interactions of causes, influences, costs, and other impacts of the piracy problems, seeks to articulate some consensus on ways forward to identify and transform available and new data into actionable information that will permit a stronger likelihood of dissuading activities, and acting inside the pirates’ decision and staging and attack cycles. It will also seek to better understand the current and projected costs of actions . . . and no actions, and to explore data fusion, modeling, and predictive methodologies that could provide actionable advantages to those vessels that are potential targets of pirates.
Primarily, this workshop will be of interest to the MDA communities within North America. Given that many other nations have valuable experience in this area, international experts will also be invited to participate. Suggested participants are OR&A analysts capable of providing insight into the MDA problems, along with operational and policy subject matter experts.
Working Group Format:
In order to most efficiently use the attendees’ time, the workshop will be broken down into five functional working groups and one synthesis working group. These working groups are based on different aspects of MDA, based on perceived operational environments. The focus of the five functional working groups will be to provide answers to Desired Outcomes 1 and 2. The synthesis working group will look at the workshop as a whole and produce a Desired Outcome 3. Working group 5 will be responsible for meeting desired outcome 4. Each Working Group will develop individual, more-detailed Terms of Reference specific to the assigned topic.
1.      Working Group One: MDA Policy and Laws: This working group will review policies peculiar to the US and Canada as well as those common to both countries. International participation will broaden the discussion to include the spectrum of MDA challenges. It is hoped that products of this working group will be:
·         Identification of policies and laws that enable MDA and promote the goal of domestic maritime security.
·         Recommendations to improve policy and cooperation between Canada and the US as well as within the international community; and
·         Identification of national and international policy and legal gaps in the development of MDA and the execution of marine security operations.
2.      Working Group Two: Blue Water MDA: This working group will examine the problem of developing MDA and conducting operations on the open ocean.
3.      Working Group Three: MDA in the International Littoral: This working group will examine the problem peculiar to conducting operations in the littoral outside of North America.
4.      Working Group Four: MDA in National Waters: This working group will examine the problem of conducting MDA within the territorial waters of the US and Canada. Possible subjects of discussion are coordination and planning of surveillance, information sharing, etc. 
Possible subjects of discussion for working groups 2 through 4 are:
·         The development of MDA requirements;
·         The identification, tasking, scheduling and coordination of available surveillance assets;
·         The processing, analysis and exploitation of available sensor, information and intelligence;
·         The exploitation of information to develop and disseminate decision quality MDA;
·         The sharing of information across domestic and international organizations;
·         The identification of training/career profiles for MDA analysts of the future;
·         The identification of systems-level solutions to MDA; and
·         The execution of marine security operations enabled by MDA in these three domains.
5.      Working Group Five: Piracy: This working group will examine the requirements for MDA to combat piracy on both a large and small scale, to include a review of costs (damages, insurances, broader economic impacts, prevention, dissuasion, mitigation, recovery, hostages, etc.), measures (prevention, dissuasion, mitigation, recovery, hostages, intelligence, targeting, countermeasures, etc.), and relationships to other criminal activities (insurgencies, combating WMD, drugs, immigration flows, smuggling, etc.). 
6.      Synthesis Working Group: This working group will take the outputs of the 5 functional working groups and created a consolidated summary of the findings and recommendations of each group. 


      Day/Time                         Activity
Sunday, 25 October 2009
      1800                WG Chair/Co-chair dinner at Sterling (www.sterlingrestaurant.com)    
Monday, 26 October 2009
      1300                Registration for Tutorial Attendees
      1300                Tutorial – subject(s) TBD x 3 with 30-min break in between. WG Chairs assist in determining tutorials.
      1700                Working Group Chair and Co-Chair Warm-Up Session 
Tuesday, 27 October 2009
      0700                Registration and Continental Breakfast
      0800                MORS President’s Welcome – Kirk Michealson
      0805                Welcome by Host (DRDC/CORA)
      0820                Proponent Welcome – Tom Denesia
      0825                Workshop Overview – Dr. Roy Mitchell (DRDC/CORA) and Jack Keane
      0835 - 1200     Workshop Opening Plenary Session
      1200                Lunch
      1230                Lunchtime Presentation
                              - Dr. Virginia Lunsford, USNA
      1315 - 1745     Working Session I
      1745                End of Day Wrap-up
      1800-2000       Social
                              - Chateau Cartier
Wednesday, 28 October 2009
      0730 - 0800     Continental Breakfast
      0800 - 0915     Opening Plenary
      0800 – 0815: Opening Comments
      0815 – 0915: Panel Discussion
                              - Topic
                              - Panel Members
                              - Panel Moderator
      0915 - 1200     Working Session II
      1200                Lunch
      1230                Lunchtime Presentation
                              - XXXX
      1330 - 1730     Working Session III
      1730                End of Day Wrap-up
      1800                XXXXXXX – see venue                                     
Thursday, 29 October 2009
      0730 - 0800     Continental Breakfast
      0800 - 0915     Opening Plenary
                              0800 – 0815: Opening Comments
                              0815 – 0915: Panel Discussion or Speaker
                              - Topic
                              - Panel Members
                              - Panel Moderator
      0915 - 1200     Working Session IV
      1200                Lunch
      1230                Lunchtime Presentation
                              - XXXX
      1300 - 1630     Working Session III
      1630                Workshop Concluding Remarks
                              - Dr. Roy Mitchell/Jack Keane
                              - Mr. Tom Denesia
                              - Kirk Michealson, MORS President
      1800                XXXXXXX – see venue

Friday, 30 October 2009

      0800                Working Group Chairs / Co-chairs complete Working Group Annotated Briefings
      1700                Adjourn Workshop (for Chairs)
The tentative utilization for the working group sessions will be:
(1) Working Session I – Kickoff: Introduction, agenda, issues & goals; and Provide context to orient WG participants for discussion and debate. Technical Papers / Discussion Session #1
(2) Working Session II – Technical Papers / Discussion Session #2
(3) Working Session III – Frame WG response & collect issues (brainstorming). Characterize OA analytical rigor and assess gaps/shortfalls. Recommend strategies and roadmaps. Refine ideas, arguments, capture WG debate, etc. Finalize out-brief slides.
a.   Attendance will be by invitation only. Attendees will include invited experts from OSD, all Services, the Joint Staff, University Affiliated Research Centers, Federally Funded Research and Development Centers, operational commanders, DoD contractors, Department of Homeland Security, US Northern Command, and others, including representatives from our Allied / Coalition Analytical Communities. Workshop chairs will control membership of their sessions in conjunction with the Organizing Committee. Attendance will be limited to 200 people.
b.   Working Groups (WGs) will be led by a Chair and one to three Co-Chairs. This leadership group will be comprised of all MORSians or a combination of MORSians and Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). The responsibilities of this team include:
(1) Chair –
(a) Dynamic individual who is a SME in the WG topic
(b) Solicits analysts and operators in the field to participate in the WG
(c) Guides the WG during the Workshop
(d) Challenged to provide the “substance” of the special meeting WG
(e) Develops the WG’s final product
(2) Co-Chair –
(a) Individual interested in WG topic
(b) Assists Chair in WG membership
(c) provides perspective during Workshop
(d) Assist Chair as Chair requests
c.   Another key group of individuals during the Workshop is the Synthesis Group. This group will provide representation to each of the WGs and assist the Workshop Chairs in consolidating the working group results and develop overall assessment/recommendations from the analysis community for the individual service operations analysts to consider.
      Several products will be generated from the workshop:
·         An Executive Summary in the form of a text document and a scripted briefing for the MORS Sponsors and DRDC/CORA addressing the workshop objectives, findings, conclusions and recommendations will be offered within 30 days.
·         A proceedings document containing summaries of all sessions and annotated copies of appropriate briefing slides and presentations.
·         An article summarizing the meeting and its findings will be produced and submitted to PHALANX in time for the next deadline after the meeting.
·         A general session presentation will be made at the 78th MORS Symposium at Quantico, VA.
8.   Milestone Table
·         11 September – Deadline for abstract submission
·         18 September – Authors notified if abstract accepted
·         9 October – Deadline for presentation submission (note: presentation must include export control documentation)[1]
9.   Proponent – USNORTHCOM J-84
10. Planning and Organizing Committee
      General Co-Chairs:                       Jack Keane, JHU/APL
                                                      Dr. Roy Mitchell, DRDC/CORA
                                                      Tom Denesia, USNORTHCOM J84
      Technical Co-Chairs:                     TBD
      Synthesis Chair:                            Terry McKearney, The Ranger Group
                      Group:                         Alan Zimm, JHU/APL
      Site Coordinator:                         
      Administrative Coordinators:       Krista Paternostro, Chief Executive Officer, MORS
                                                  Colette Burgess, MORS Meeting Planner
      MORS Bulldog:                            Kirk Michealson, Lockheed Martin Corporation       
Working Group Chairs:
            WG1 – MDA Policy and Laws:
              Chair – TBD
                          Co-Chair – John Shissler, JHU/APL
                          Co-Chair – Brad Gladman, DRDC/CORA
                          Co-Chair – Renee Carlucci, US Army Center for Army Analysis
            WG 2 – Blue Water MDA
                               Chair – Captain Doug Otte, USN, Naval Postgraduate School
                          Co-Chair – Neil Carson, DRDC/CORA (NORAD)
                          Co-Chair – TBD
            WG 3 – MDA in the International Littoral
                               Chair – Mark McIntyre, DRDC/Atlantic
                          Co-Chair –
                          Co-Chair –
            WG 4 – MDA in National Waters
                               Chair – TBD
                          Co-Chair – Yvan Gauthier, DRDC/CORA (CANADACOM)
                          Co-Chair – TBD
            WG 5 – Piracy
                               Chair – Bruce Wyman, Northrup-Grumman
                          Co-Chair – Paul Saunders, DRDC/CORA
                          Co-Chair – Rochelle Anderson, US Army TRADOC
Sponsor/Service Reps:
            Air Force:                                Balf Callaway, Air Force Headquarters / A-9
            Army:                                      Touggy Orgeron, CAA
            Navy:                                      Herb Cupo, OPNAV(N81)
            Marine Corps:                         Col Joseph Smith, MCCDC Studies & Analysis
            Joint Staff:                              Robert Orlov, JS (J8)
            OSD:                                       Mr. Jim Bexfield, FS, OSD(PA&E)  
            DHS:                                       Dr. Arch Turner, DHS (S&T)
11. Administrative
      Name – Analytic Support for Maritime Domain Awareness and Counter-Piracy
      Dates – 26-29 October 2009

Registration Fees

         Non-Government Non-MORS Member                      $750

         Non-Government MORS Member                              $675

         Government Non-MORS Member                              $640

         Government MORS Member                                    $575



Location – Chateau Cartier Hotel

       1170, chemin Aylmer Road, Gatineau, 

       Quebec J9H 7L3 Canada

Room Rate- $139 (Single/Double) + Tax.  For reservations, call 1-800-807-1088 or 1-819-778-0000.



When making hotel reservations, please refer to the MORS Reservation number 249952

(Note : All workshops will be held at the Château Cartier Hotel)



Attendance – 200 people, by invitation

Classification – Unclassified

[1] If the presentation is of a technical nature suitable for publication, WG Chairs/Co-chairs are to encourage presenter(s) to submit a technical paper for an international issue of the MOR Journal dedicated to Analytic Support for Maritime Domain Awareness and Counter-Piracy.


The organizing committee is already assembling a great set of plenary speakers from across Canada and the US.  If you would like to help the planning committee, contribute technically, know of someone who should be invited to attend and/or present, please contact the authors of this article.  For information on the sites and attractions of Ottawa, as well as seasonal information, please visit the Ottawa Tourism link www.ottawatourism.ca.


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